Encephalopathy is one of the most frequent hospital diagnoses, whether acknowledged or missed, and is of such importance that insurance companies pay higher daily rates, and for longer hospital stays, when Encephalopathy is diagnosed. It simply means brain dysfunction, is almost always reversible, is frequently missed, and occurs in almost every setting in life.



Delirium represents the neuropsychiatric manifestations of encephalopathy. The most missed type of delirium is hypoactive, in which clinicians frequently wrongly assume that the patient is overly sedated on medication, when in reality, it is the most common form of encephalopathy/delirium and is frequently unrelated to sedative substances. The hyperactive type draws great attention due to the unusual, unpredictable, and sometimes dangerous behaviors.


Head Trauma

Dr. Alexander has dealt with minor head injuries, such as concussions in sports, to serious traumatic brain injuries from all types of accidents. Strokes, brain bleeds, tumors, and other sources of injury to the brain have been a regular aspect of his practice.


Psychiatric Disorders

Dr. Alexander has experience working with almost every psychiatric disorder. These include PTSD, Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, personality disorders, sleep disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual disorders, etc.



Dr. Alexander has worked with patients with addictions to almost every known substance. Many of the legal cases of which he’s been an expert have involved various forms and expressions of addiction.



Dr. Alexander has been frequently involved in the legal or clinical determination of competency, whether it involves making treatment or disposition decisions, as well as Competency to Stand Trial, Mental State at the Time of the Offense, or a person's ability to understand and sign legal documents and contracts.



Dr. Alexander has much experience in understanding and detecting Malingering. The determination of the presence or absence of malingering is a necessary part of every case. To better make this determination, Dr. Alexander uses objective psychological and neurocognitive testing and has extensive experience in lie detection and body language.

Encephalopathy is defined as temporary brain dysfunction, almost always caused by a medical or surgical illness, sometimes by drugs and medications. It is often missed by Healthcare professionals. With over 35 years of experience, J. Sidney Alexander, MD is an expert in diagnosing and treating encephalopathy.

Brain Dysfunction

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